Prospecting Rights

Horomela Investments (Pty) Ltd currently hold 7 granted and 3 accepted prospecting rights that are over 400 000 ha in extent and these prospecting rights are in the vicinity of the world renowned Black Mountain Mine and the Gamberg Project.

Horomela Investments prospecting rights summary

Horomela Prospecting Rights Map

Regional Geology

The Horomela prospecting licences are located in the structurally complex and poly-metamorphosed Namaqua Province of western South Africa.

The licences are underlain by rocks of the Bushmanland Group that mainly consists of pelitic and psammitic metasediments.

The supracrustal rocks of the Bushmanland Group, comprise a thin (<1 km thick) metavolcano-sedimentary succession composed of a very consistent, shallow marine duplex of sandstone-shale to chemogenic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that have undergone multiple phases of deformation and metamorphism.

The time of deposition of the Bushmanland Group is constrained between the age of the youngest detrital zircon (~1.64 Ga) and the onset of the regionally extensive Kibaran Orogeny at ~1.2 Ga. Metamorphic overgrowths and rims on detrital zircons record two distinct events, the ~1.21 to ~1.18 Ga Kibaran Orogeny, characterised by extensive granitic magmatism, peak D2 deformation and peak upper amphibolite facies grade M2 metamorphism, and the more ubiquitous ~1.04 to ~1.01 Ga Namaquan Orogeny characterised by weaker M3 metamorphism.

Locally the farms are underlain by Quaternary sediments that partially cover the Bushmanland Group supracrustals and these in turn overly a gneissic basement with some intrusions.

Structural Geology

Tectonic subdivision of the Namaqua metamorphic Province (McClung, 2006)

ESOL Classes

The Namaqua Sector is composed of NNW-SSE, NW to SE and finally EW oriented terranes.

Their orientation corresponds to the regional fabric in each terrane. The direction of orogenic accretion was towards the Kaapvaal Craton, so that the Kheis Province and the Kaaien Terrane are regarded as the foreland.

The Kheis Province is dominated by Paleoproterozoic north-trending ridges of quartzite (Pettersson, 2008), its basement unknown and its pre-Namaquan history debated.

The Kaapvaal Craton itself was not much affected by the orogeny, but banded-iron formations along the southwestern margins are folded. The change in direction from NW in the eastern terranes (Kaaien, Areachap and Kakamas Terranes) to E-W in Bushmanland most likely records a shift in collision direction when Bushmanland and the Richtersveld joined the collision (Pettersson, 2008).

Geology Map

Stratigraphy

McClung (2006) subdivided the Bushmanland Group into two subgroups and thirteen formations.

The base of the Bushmanland Group (Wortel Subgroup) comprises a thin (250-350 m thick) sequence of interbedded upward-coarsening psammo-pelitic schists and mature quartzite (i.e. meta-orthoquartzites) of the Namies Schist Fm., Pella Quartzite Fm., Bloemhoek Fm. and laterally equivalent Kangnas Fm.

In contrast, the metasedimentary rocks of the unconformably overlying Kouboom Subgroup can be separated into facies terrains divided by the Pofadder-Tantalite Valley Shear Zone (PTV Shear Zone). West of the PTV Shear Zone the Kouboom Subgroup is characterized by a thin (205-225 m thick) succession of interbedded mature quartzites and pelitic schists.

East of PTV Shear Zone the Kouboom Subgroup encompasses a thick (~1250 m thick) succession of calc-silicate rocks hosted by biotite to calc-silicate-rich schists and metagreywackes. The Koeris Fm., a variably thick (0-650 m) succession of psammitic schists, meta-conglomerates and ortho-amphibolites unconformably overlies the Kouboom Subgroup

Types of Deposits

Zinc is mainly found in volcanic massive sulphide deposits (VMS), stratiform sedimentary exhalative (sedex) deposit or Mississippi Valley Type deposit. In the former the deposit is a synvolcanic sulphide accumulation hosted in submarine volcanic environments. These produce two main types of deposits Cu-Zn type and Zn-Pb-Cu type. Some examples of VMS deposits in South Africa include the Maranda Cu-Zn in Murchison Greenstone Belt and Bien Venue Zn-Ba-Pb-Ag-au deposit in the Barberton Greenstone Belt.

Sedex deposit are formed at the ocean floors and are driven by deep seated convectional cells gleaning metallic ions from hydrothermally altered rocks and exhaling them on the ocean floor in a sedimentary environment. These deposits mainly contain zinc, lead, copper, barium and/or precious metals. Examples of sedex deposit are Aggeneys sulphide deposits Gamsberg Zn-Pb and Broken Hill Zn-Pb-Ag deposit.

Mississippi Valley Type deposits form when saline ore fluids are generated by dewatering of underlying rocks move up into fractures and intergranular pore spaces of mainly carbonate.

The deposits are characterised by steep mountainous terrain, minute dipole magnetic anomalies and low radiometric counts.

Major Deposits In The Area

Black Mountain, Broken Hill and Deep deposits

They are all mined by the Black Mountain Company. The Broken Hill deposit well known for lead, zinc, silver and copper mineralisation and is composed of quartzites, magnetic quartzite, shale and schists. The magnetite quartzite and quartzite schist could be solely responsible for the magnetic signature of the deposit. Both the Black Mountain and Broken Hill are mined through one pit. The magnetic anomaly at Black Mountain is due to magnetite quartzites.

Big Syncline

South east of Black Mountain lies a big mountain also known as the Big Syncline deposit. Similar to the other Aggeneys sulphide deposits, it hosts zinc, lead, copper and silver. Its geology is very similar to that of Black Mountain that is quartzite and magnetite quartzite and shales, where high magnetic values coincide with magnetite quartzite outcrops.

Swartberg

To the west of the Big Syncline is the Swartberg deposit. The magnetic anomaly is intensified at one zone and then spreads outwards. South east of the deposit is where it outcrops and is currently being mined. The rest of the body is covered by superficial sand cover. The magnetics method mapped this body as relatively bigger. The magnetic material is spread over 6 km which is more than a kilometre that outcrops. Similar to all other Aggeneys deposit, it is mined for zinc, lead, copper and silver. The common rocks in this deposit are magnetite quartzites, quartzites, shales, amphibolites and weathered gneisses.

Gamsberg deposit

The Gamsberg deposit consists of two distinct anomalies: strong positive and strong negative magnetic intensities not from the same body with some of the areas within the deposits showing no sign of magnetisation. From the north to south via east is a circular shape positive anomaly and from the centre toward east, spreading north and south, is negatively magnetised area. This deposit is known to host barite, iron, manganese, zinc and lead minerals, hosted by the banded iron formation. It is composed of gneisses, schists, amphibolites, magnetite quartzites to name the few (Cornell et al., 2009). The magnetite, iron, hornblende, amphiboles and micas are magnetic minerals and are hosting these sulphides deposits.

Total Magnetics Intensity